आधुनिक भारत, ऐतिहासिक कहानियाँ

बंगाल का अंतिम वीर योद्धा-The Savior of Calcutta

calcutta riots
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गोपाल पाठा खटिक उर्फ़ गोपालचन्द्र मुखोपाध्याय

पाकिस्तान की मांग मनवाने केलिए मुस्लिम लीग ने भारत के गैरमुस्लिमों के विरुद्ध पूरे भारत में ‘सीधी कार्रवाई’ की घोषणा कर दी थी. मुस्लिम लीग के हिन्दुओं के विरुद्ध सीधी कार्यवाही (Direct Action) से सबसे अधिक प्रभावित कोलकाता, नोआखाली और रावलपिंडी हुआ था. कोलकाता में इस घटना को कोलकाता हत्या और बलात्कार कांड के नाम से जाना जाता है. जिन्ना ने कहा था कोलकाता के बिना पूर्वी पाकिस्तान अधूरा होगा. इसलिए सीधी कार्यवाही में हिन्दू बहुल कोलकाता मुस्लिम लीग के एजेंडे में सबसे उपर था. बंगाल में मुस्लिम लीग का ही सरकार था. उसने १६ अगस्त १९४६ को सार्वजनिक अवकाश की घोषणा कर दी और मुख्यमंत्री हुसैन सुहरावर्दी के नेतृत्व में हिन्दुओं का कत्लेआम प्रारम्भ कर दिया गया.

बंगाल के मुख्यमंत्री हुसैन सुहरावर्दी ने हिन्दुओं के कत्लेआम केलिए उकसाया

हुसैन शाहिद सुहरावर्दी, बंगाल का मुख्यमंत्री

१६ अगस्त के दिन ओक्टरलोनी स्मारक परिसर में सुहरावर्दी ने एक लाख मुसलमानों के भीड़ को सम्बोधित करते हुए उन्हें हिन्दुओं, बौद्धों, सिक्खों और जैनों के विरुद्ध हिंसा करने केलिए उकसाया और उन्हें आश्वस्त किया की कोई भी पुलिस या सेना उनकी कार्यवाही में दखल नहीं देगी. मुस्लिम लीग तथा बंगाल के तत्कालीन मुख्यमंत्री सोहराबर्दी के उकसाने पर कलकत्ता तथा बंगाल और बिहार के सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रों में मुसलमानों ने भीषण दंगे छेड़ दिए.

भीड़ से निकलते ही मुसलमान हिन्दुओं, बौद्धों, सिक्खों और जैनों के दुकानों और घरों को लूटने, जलाने और हिंसा करने लगे. मस्जिदों से मौलवी, मौलाना हिन्दुओं पर टूट पड़ने केलिए मुसलमानों को उकसाने लगे. ७२ घंटों के भीतर बीस हजार से अधिक हिन्दू लोग मारे गए, तीस हजार से अधिक गंभीर रूप से घायल हुए और कई लाख हिन्दू बेघर हो गए. हजारों मासूम हिन्दू लड़कियों तथा महिलाओं का सामूहिक बलात्कार उनके परिजनों के सामने किया गया तथा उन्हें और उनके परिवार को काट कर मुस्लिम लीग ने अपनी मजहबी ताकत का प्रदर्शन किया. (विकिपीडिया)

१७ अगस्त को स्थिति और भी भयानक हो गयी. कोलकाता की गलियां शमशान सी दिखने लगी. चारों और केवल हिंदुओं की लाशें और उन पर मंडराते गिद्ध ही दीखते थे. जब राज्य का मुख्यमंत्री ही दंगे के पीछे हो तो फिर राज्य की पुलिस से सहायता की उम्मीद करना भी बेमानी थी. सुहरावर्दी खुद लालबाग के पुलिस हेडक्वार्टर में उपस्थित हो दंगाईयों के विरुद्ध पुलिस कार्यवाही को रोके हुए था.

लाशों को गिद्ध खाते हुए १९४६ के कलकत्ता दंगे की तस्वीर

कम्युनिस्ट नेता सईद अब्दुल्ला फारुकी, जो गार्डन रिच टेक्सटाइल वर्कर्स यूनियन का अध्यक्ष था, उसने दंगाई मुसलमानों को इकठ्ठा कर लिछुबागान के ओड़िया मजदूरों की स्लम बस्ती पर हमला कर दिया. केसोराम कोटन मिल्स के ६०० ओड़िया मजदूरों का निर्ममतापूर्वक कत्ल कर दिया गया जबकि उन मजदूरों ने उन्हें कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी से जुड़े होने का कार्ड भी दिखाया था पर जिहाद के आगे राजनीतिक पहचान कुछ काम नहीं आया.

वीर योद्धा गोपाल पाठा उर्फ़ गोपालचन्द्र मुखोपाध्याय (1913 – 2005)

गोपाल पाठा खटिक उर्फ़ गोपालचंद्र मुखोपाध्याय फोटो साभार

हिन्दुओं पर हो रहे अत्याचार को देखकर ‘गोपाल पाठा’ उर्फ़ गोपालचन्द्र मुखोपाध्याय नामक युवक का खून खौल उठा. वह मुस्लिम लीग द्वारा हिन्दुओं के कत्लेआम की घोषणा के बाद बंगाल के कोलकाता, नोआखाली में मुस्लिमों द्वारा निर्दोष हिन्दुओं के मारे जाने से क्रुद्ध होकर अपने कुछ साथियों के साथ मिलकर मुस्लिम दंगाईयो को खत्म करने केलिए हथियार उठा लिया. उसने अपने साथी एकत्र किये, हथियार और बम इकट्ठे किये और दंगाइयों को सबक सिखाने निकल पड़ा.

गोपाल पाठा खटीक उर्फ़ गोपालचंद्र मुखोपाध्याय का कार्य मांस बेचना और काटना था. उनका परिवार कोलकाता के बउबाजार में कसाई का काम करता था जो पूर्वी बंगाल के चौरंगा जिले से १८९० में कोलकाता आकर रहने लगे थे. वे क्रन्तिकारी अनुकुलचन्द्र मुखोपाध्याय के भतीजे थे.

शठेत् शाठयम् समाचरेत् अर्थात जैसे को तैसा की नीति

कोलकाता की सड़कें, १६ अगस्त, १९४६

गोपालचंद्र मुखोपाध्याय शठेत् शाठयम् समाचरेत् अर्थात जैसे को तैसा की नीति के पक्षधर थे. उन्होंने भारतीय जातीय वाहिनी नाम से एक संगठन बनाया और अपने आदमियों को दंगाई मुसलमानों को उसी की भाषा में जबाब देने के लिए कहा. उन्होंने कहा अगर वे एक हिन्दू मारते हैं तो तुमलोग दस दंगाई मारो. उनके साथियों ने चाकू, तलवार, लाठी, रॉड और बंदूक से प्रतिउत्तर देना शुरू किया. गोपाल पाठा के पास खुद के दो अमेरिकन ०.४५ बोर पिस्टल था और कुछ ग्रेनेड भी जिसे उन्होंने ऐसे ही किसी अंदेशे से द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के बाद कोलकाता में पोस्टेड अमेरिकन सिपाहियों से खरीदा था जो आज काम आ रहा था.

१९९७ में इंडियन एक्सप्रेस को दिए एक इन्टरव्यू में उन्होंने कहा “It was a very critical time for the country. We thought if the whole area became Pakistan, there would be more torture and repression. So I called all my boys together and said it was time to retaliate. If you come to know that one killing has taken place, you kill 10 others. That was the order to my boys.”

एक लाख दंगाईयों के विरुद्ध गोपाल पाठा के सिर्फ ५०० जाबांज

हुसैन सुहरावर्दी के एक लाख मुस्लिमों के विरुद्ध इनके संगठन के केवल ५०० के आस पास आदमी थे पर वे रोज अखाड़े में पहलवानी करने वाले लोग थे. उन्होंने वीरता के साथ दंगाईयों का मुकाबला किया. उनकी सफलता देख बिहार, उत्तरप्रदेश और ओड़ीशा के युवक तथा बंगाल के दलित युवक भी उनके साथ जुड़कर दंगाईयों से मुकाबला करने लगे. बड़ाबाजार के मारवाड़ियों ने धन से इन सबकी मदद की. लोहारों ने इनके लिए चाकू, छुरे और तलवार बनाये.

१८ अगस्त से गोपाल पाठा के नेतृत्व में हिन्दुओं ने दंगाई मुसलमानों को जबाब देना शुरू किया. पहले हिन्दू क्षेत्र में घुसे आक्रमणकारी दंगाईयों को पकड़ कर काटा गया, फिर मुस्लिम बहुल क्षेत्र में भी घुसकर दंगाईयों को घरों से खींचकर मारा गया. मुस्लिम लीग के मुस्लिम नेशनल गार्ड्स के सदस्यों को भारी संख्यां में मारा गया परन्तु हिन्दुओं ने बच्चों और औरतों को हाथ नहीं लगाया.  

मुस्लिम दंगाइयों में दहशत

गोपाल पाठा के कारण मुस्लिम दंगाइयों में दहशत फैल गई और जब हिन्दुओ का पलड़ा भारी होने लगा तो  सोहरावर्दी ने सेना बुला ली और उनसे शांति की अपील की. उन्होंने दंगाईयों को इस कदर खत्म किया कि राज्य प्रायोजित हिन्दुओं के कत्लेआम पर चुप बैठे गांधी मुस्लिमों के मारे जाने पर इतने दुखी हुए कि बंगाल आकर अनशन पर बैठ गए. उन्होंने खुद गोपाल को दो बार बुलाया, लेकिन गोपाल ने स्पष्ट मना कर दिया.

तीसरी बार जब एक कांग्रेस के स्थानीय नेता ने गोपाल से प्रार्थना की “कम से कम कुछ हथियार तो गाँधी जी के सामने डाल दो”. तब गोपाल ने कहा कि “जब हिन्दुओं की हत्या हो रही थी, तब तुम्हारे गाँधीजी कहाँ थे? मैंने इन हथियारों से अपने इलाके की हिन्दू महिलाओ की रक्षा की है, मैं हथियार नहीं डालूँगा.”

उन्होंने इंडियन एक्सप्रेस को दिए अपने इंटरव्यू में कहा “Gandhi called me twice, I didn’t go. The third time, some local Congress leaders told me that I should at least deposit some of my arms. I went there. I saw people coming and depositing weapons which were of no use to anyone:  out-of-order pistols, that sort of thing. Then Gandhi’s secretary said to me: ‘Gopal, why don’t you surrender your arms to Gandhiji?’ I replied, `With these arms I saved the women of my area, I saved the people. I will not surrender them. Where was Gandhiji, I said, during the Great Calcutta Killing? Where was he then? Even if I’ve used a nail to kill someone, I won’t surrender even that nail.”

शांति केलिए शक्ति संतुलन का सिद्धांत

गोपाल पाठा ने अपना वह सन्गठन आजादी के बाद तक बनाये रखा था. यही कारण है कि एक ओर जहाँ पश्चिमी पाकिस्तान में हिन्दुओं, बौद्धों, सिक्खों के विरुद्ध मुसलमानों ने भयानक नरसंहार और बलात्कार को अंजाम दिया था पर बंगाल उसकी तुलना में लगभग शांत ही रहा क्योंकि गोपाल पाठा ने शक्ति संतुलन का सिद्धांत लागू कर दिया था. शक्ति संतुलन का सिद्धांत यह है कि, “युद्ध, दंगा या हिंसा तभी होता है जब कोई एक पक्ष कमजोर होता है. इसलिए शांति केलिए शक्ति संतुलन जरुरी है.”

आज जब उस वीर योद्धा गोपालचंद्र मुखोपाध्याय की याद आती है तो दिल में कसक सी होती है. योद्धाओं, क्रांतिकारियों और मनीषियों की धरती बंगाल को आज हो क्या गया है! अब यहाँ देशभक्त क्रांतिकारियों और मनीषियों की जगह नक्सली; भारत विरोधी वामपंथी और प्रज्ञाहीन सेकुलर क्यों पैदा होने लगे है? इस पवित्र भूमि से आखिर क्या पाप हो गया जो आज ऐसे औलाद पैदा होने लगे हैं.

स्रोत:

विकिपीडिया-Culcutta Riots, Direct Action Day, Gopal Patha etc.

Hindupost.com

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