नवीनतम शोध, प्राचीन भारत

मध्य एशिया के कुषाण हिन्दू थे

कुषाण
शेयर करें

ग्रियर्सन के अनुसार (मध्य एशिया के) मिदिया के लोग आर्य थे और २५०० ईस्वीपूर्व में यहाँ थे. मिदिया में आर्यों की धाक थी. उनके देवता वे ही थे जिनके नाम बाद में हम भारत में पाते हैं और यह कि वे सतेम भाषी थे, जो प्राचीन संस्कृत से अधिक निकटता रखती है.

ग्रियर्सन के इस बात से लगभग सभी साम्राज्यवादी और वामपंथी इतिहासकार सहमत हैं क्योंकि ये लोग भारत के हिन्दुओं को मध्यएशिया से भारत में आये हुए साबित करने केलिए ही नाना प्रकार के झूठ और मनगढ़ंत इतिहास फैला रखें हैं. सवाल यह उठता है कि जब सिर्फ २५०० ईसापूर्व मध्य एशिया वैदिक सभ्यता, संस्कृति, धर्म और आर्य हिन्दुओं का गढ़ था तो फिर अचानक क्या हो गया कि, इन्ही इतिहासकारों के अनुसार, मध्य एशिया का हिन्दू इतिहास एकाएक खत्म हो गया और प्रथम सहस्त्राब्दी ईस्वी पूर्व से ही वहां हिन्दुओं का कोई इतिहास ही नहीं दिखाई पड़ता?

क्या मध्य एशिया के तुर्की/मंगोल मुसलमानों द्वारा भारत में दिल्ली सल्तनत और मुगल वंश स्थापित कर लेने के बाद मध्य एशिया से मुसलमान खत्म हो गये? अगर यह मान भी लिया जाये कि हिन्दू मध्य एशिया से १५०० ईस्वी पूर्व ही भारत आये थे तो हिन्दू भारत में भयानक अरबी, तुर्की मुस्लिम आक्रमण को झेलते हुए भी कम से कम, वर्तमान भारत में, ३५०० वर्षों से तो रह रहे हैं. फिर मध्य एशिया से हिन्दू अचानक कब और कैसे खत्म हो गये? साम्राज्यवादी और वामपंथी इतिहासकार इन सवालों का जबाब नहीं देते है क्योंकि उन्हें अपने अपने निहित स्वार्थों की पूर्ति केलिए भारत का फर्जी एजेंडा इतिहास लिखना है.

परन्तु मध्य एशिया के ऐतिहासिक और पुरातात्विक साक्ष्यों से पता चलता है कि वहां हिन्दू खत्म नहीं हुए थे. मध्यएशिया और पूर्व मध्य एशिया के लोग बौद्ध धर्म अपनाने और जबरन मुसलमान बनाये जाने से पहले मुख्य रूप से हिन्दू और पारसी (पर्शियन हिन्दू) ही थे. मैंने पहले ही साबित कर दिया है कि मध्य एशिया के शक भारत से निर्वासित सूर्यवंशी क्षत्रिय थे और वे स्थानीय परिवर्तनों के साथ वैदिक संस्कृति और धर्म का ही पालन करते थे. शकों ने जब भारत पर हमला किया था तब भी वे हिन्दू ही थे. मध्य एशिया के कुषाणों और तुषारों के हिन्दू होने के प्रमाण मैं इस लेख में दे रहा हूँ.

कुषाणों का वामपंथी इतिहास

कुषाण
कनिष्क के समय कुषाण साम्राज्य

वामपंथी इतिहासकार कुषाणों के सम्बन्ध में हमें बताते है कि कुषाण वंश का संस्थापक मध्य एशिया का कुजुल कडफिसस था. कुषाणों का मूल स्थान चीन में था और वे चीन से भगाए गए यूची कबीले के लोग थे. कुजुल कडफिसस लघु यूची काबिले का सरदार था और वह बौद्ध धर्मी था. उसका पौत्र वीम कडफिसस ने शैव धर्म अपना लिया था, उसका प्रपौत्र कनिष्क बौद्ध था और वह भारत में कुषाण वंश का सबसे प्रतापी राजा था.

और एजेंडा इतिहास के तहत समझाते हैं कि बौद्ध अशोक मौर्य के बाद बौद्ध कनिष्क ही भारत का सबसे प्रतापी राजा था और उनके इतिहास में जैसे मौर्य वंश का वास्तविक संस्थापक चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य और चाणक्य गौण हो जाता है वैसे ही कुषाण साम्राज्य के वास्तविक संस्थापक कुजुल कडफिसस और वीम कडफिसस गौण हो जाते हैं.

कुषाणों का वास्तविक इतिहास

एक कुषाण शिवपुत्र स्कन्द की पूजा करते हुए

Contrary to earlier assumptions, which regarded Kujula Kadphises as Buddhist on the basis of the epithet of the ‘satyadharmasthita’ epithet, it is now clear from the wording of a Mathura inscription, in which Huvishka bears the same epithet satyadharmasthita , that the kingdom was conferred upon him by Sarva (Shiva) and Scandavira (Skand, the son of Shiva), that is, he was a devotee of the Hindu God Siva. It is striking to see that Kujula Kadphises has already adopted the worship of Shiva and the use of Kharosthï script at such an early date.

[Source: History of civilizations of Central Asia. Author- Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, B. A. Litvinsky, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Motilal Banarsidass, Unesco. 1992–2005. p. 318. ISBN 92-3-102719-0]

जी हाँ, यही सत्य है. History of civilizations of Central Asia पुस्तक पढ़ने से पहले भी मेरे पास इस बात के पर्याप्त सबूत थे कि कुजुल कडफिसस शैवधर्मी हिन्दू था न कि बौद्ध.

राहुल सांकृत्यायन अपने ग्रन्थ मध्य एशिया का इतिहास में लिखते हैं “ऐसा नहीं है कि यूची शक (कुषाण) भारत आने के बाद भारतीय संस्कृति और धर्म को अपना लिए बल्कि वे जहाँ के थे अर्थात मध्य-पूर्व एशिया के तारिम उपत्यका (आधुनिक शिनजियांग) में हिन्दू ही रहा करते थे.” उन्होंने कुषाणों केलिए यूची शक का प्रयोग किया है और ‘यूची’ के लिए भारतीय शब्द ‘ऋषिक’ लिखा है.

कुषाण वंश के संस्थापक कुजुल कडफिसस

कुषाण कालीन Oesho अर्थात शिव की पेंटिंग्स

दरअसल वामपंथी इतिहासकार मध्यएशियाई हिन्दू शासकों के केवल ग्रीक, चीनी नाम हम भारतियों को बताते है. उटपटांग ग्रीक, चीनी नाम से लगता है कि वे लोग भारतीय संस्कृति, धर्म और भाषा से अलग प्रजाति के लोग हैं और एजेंडा इतिहासकारों का उद्देश्य भी यही होता है. जैसे कुषाणों को चीन के यूची कबीले का बताते हैं पर यूचियों का भारतीय नाम, जिस पर देश विदेश के लगभग सभी इतिहासकार और विद्वान सहमत हैं कि चीनी ‘यूची’ ही भारतीय ग्रंथों में वर्णित ‘ऋषिक’ लोग हैं, नहीं बताते हैं.

अब कुजुल कडफिसस को देखिए. कुजुल कडफिसस का भारतीय नाम गुजुर कपिशिया है. इतिहासकार ऍफ़ डब्ल्यू थॉमस के अनुसार कुजुल वास्तव में गुशुर शब्द है. ऍफ़ डब्ल्यू थॉमस के मत का समर्थन टी. बरो नामक विद्वान ने भी किया हैं. ‘कनिष्क’ केलिए भी कई विदेशी ग्रंथों में ‘गनिष्क’ लिखा मिलता है.

कुजुल कडफिसस तथा तथा उसके पौत्र वीम कडफिसस के नाम में कडफिसस एक उपाधि है. कडफिसस को भिन्न-भिन्न रूप से लिखा गया हैं, जैसे- कुजुल कडफिसस के सिक्को पर खरोष्ठी लिपि और प्राकृत भाषा में कप्शा, कप्सा, कफ्सा, कफसा आदि. कुजुल को भारत के सोलहवां महाजनपद कम्बोज के कपिशा शहर का शासक होने का बड़ा गर्व था. अतः उसने कपिशा पर अपना शासन प्रदर्शित करने वाली एक उपाधि कपिशिया धारण की. लेवी के अनुसार ‘कड़फिसेस’ का अर्थ ‘कपिशा मैन’ (Kapisha man) हैं. (स्रोत: https://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/कुजुल_कडफिसेस)

चीन के प्राचीन इतिहास होऊ हांसू में तो लगता है कुजुल कडफिसस का एक नाम तिलक (Thilac) लिख रखा है. “…the prince of Guishuang, named Thilac [Kujula Kadphises], attacked and exterminated the four other xihou. He established himself as king, and his dynasty was called that of the Guishuang [Kushan] King. He invaded Anxi [Indo-Parthia] and took the Gaofu [Kabul] region. He also defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda [Paktiya] and Jibin [Kapisha and Gandhara.”— Hou Hanshu [ Hill (2009), p. 29.]

कुषाणों का प्राचीन इतिहास

कुषाणों के हिन्दू होने से सम्बन्धित और भी सबूत रखने से पहले कुषाणों के प्राचीन इतिहास पर एक नजर डाल लेते हैं. लगभग सभी इतिहासकार इस मत से सहमत हैं कि भारतीय ग्रंथों में वर्णित ऋषिक जाति ही चीनी यूची हैं और अधिकांश इतिहासकार इस मत से सहमत हैं कि तुषार या तुखार और कुषाण यूची कबीलों से सम्बन्धित थे.

ऋषिक अर्थात यूची जातियां

वासुदेव शरण अग्रवाल ऋषिक जातियों को प्राचीन चीनी स्रोत में वर्णित यूची जाति मानते हैं. [India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashtadhyayi, 1953, p 321] जे सी विद्यालंकार भी ऋषिक जतियों को कुषाण मानते हैं. मध्य एशिया का इतिहास लिखने वाले राहुल सांकृत्यायन यूची का भारतीय नाम ऋषिक बताते हैं. प्रसिद्ध बौद्ध सम्राट् कनिष्क का रक्तसंबंध इसी जाति के कुषाण नामक कबीले से था.

मत्स्य पुराण के अनुसार ऋषिक जातियां ऋषियों के वंशज हैं. इतिहासकार पी एन ओक रशिया का प्राचीन नाम ऋषिय प्रदेश बताते हैं क्योंकि उनके अनुसार प्राचीन काल में यह प्रदेश ऋषियों, मुनियों का तपस्या स्थल हुआ करता था. अतः मेरा मत है कि ऋषिक जातियां ऋषिय प्रदेश (रशिया) के लोग हो सकते हैं जो परवर्ती काल में तारिम उपत्यका (शिनजियांग) में बस गये होंगे. ज्ञातव्य है कि मध्य एशिया का अधिकांश भाग कुछ वर्षों पूर्व तक सोवियत रूस कहलाता था.

रामायण के किष्किन्धा कांड में उत्तरापथ के उत्तर ऋषिक जातियों और दक्षिणापथ (विदर्भ के निकट) के ऋषिक जातियों के दूसरी शाखा की चर्चा मिलती है. मार्कंडेय पुराण में भी दक्षिणापथ के ऋषिक जातियों की चर्चा मिलती है.

महाभारत में अर्जुन की दिग्विजय के प्रसंग में कम्बोज का लोह (लोहान) और ऋषिक जनपदों के साथ उल्लेख है (सभा. २७, २५). महाभारत के सभा पर्व के अनुसार ऋषिक जातियों ने लोहान, परमा कम्बोज के साथ मिलकर अर्जुन के दिग्विजय के दौरान उत्तरापथ के राज्यों के विजय में सहायता की थी. महाभारत के कर्णपर्व और भीष्मपर्व में भी दक्षिणापथ के ऋषिक जातियों की चर्चा है जो एक महाजनपद के निकट था.

कुषाण और तुषार

ग्रीक इतिहासकार लिखते हैं कि दूसरी शताब्दी ईस्वी पूर्व में तुखारों ने मध्य एशिया पर विजय प्राप्त किया और कुषाण वंश के नाम से शासन किया जबकि चायनीज स्रोत बताते हैं कि सम्बन्धित काल में दा यूची (महायूची) ने मध्य एशिया पर अधिकार कर कुषाण वंश के नाम से शासन किया.

कल्हण कुषाणों को तुरुष्क जातियों (तुषार, तुखार) के वंशज मानते हैं. ओरल स्टीन तुखारों (Tokharoi/ Tokarai) को यूची की शाखा मानते हैं. पी सी बागची यूची, तोचारी (Tocharioi) और तुषार को एक ही जाति मानते हैं.

मेरा मत है कि कुषाणों और तुषारों में सांस्कृतिक, धार्मिक, सामाजिक और भाषाई सम्बन्धी इतनी समानताएं हैं कि सभी इतिहासकार कुषाणों और तुषारों को एक ही जाति के मान लेते हैं और वह समानता है इन दोनों के अतीत से लेकर ईसापूर्व और ईसापश्चात काल तक भारतीय संस्कृति, धर्म, परम्परा और भाषा से, किंचित स्थानीय परिवर्तनों सहित, मजबूती से जुड़े रहना. कुषाणों की तरह तुषारों का इतिहास भी वैदिक संस्कृति, धर्म और भाषा का हिन्दू इतिहास ही है जिसे हम इस लेख के अगले भाग में विस्तार से बतायेंगे.

कुषाणों की बस्ती

१३५ ईसा पूर्व में कुषाण हिन्दू कुश पर्वत क्षेत्र में वक्षु नदी (आधुनिक आमू दरिया) के उत्तरी और दक्षिणी हिन्दू कुश पर्वत क्षेत्रो पर काबिज़ थे (विकिपीडिया कुषाण). महाभारत में भी ऋषिक जातियों को आमू दरिया और सिर दरिया के बीच (Transoxian region) में बताया गया है. सभी विद्वान इस बात पर एकमत हैं कि यूची इंडो-यूरोपियन मूल के थे न कि चायनीज मूल के लेकिन चीनी इतिहास में इन्हें शिनजियांग के घासभूमि में गांसू प्रान्त के उत्तर-पश्चिमी भाग का बताया गया है. (Indo European in Cental Asia, AK Narain and Central Asia: History and Civilization by Roux, Jean-Paul)

ज्ञातव्य है कि इंडो-यूरोपियन कहे जानेवाले लोग किसी न किसी प्रकार भारतीय संस्कृति और संस्कृत भाषा से जुड़े रहे हैं. ३२७ ई.पू में सिकंदर के आक्रमण के पश्चात यहाँ यूनानी बस गए थे तथा वे इस क्षेत्र को बैक्ट्रिया के नाम से पुकारते थे. बैक्ट्रिया पर पहले शकों ने हमला किया, फिर शकों और ग्रीकों को खदेड़ते हुए बाह्लीक (बैक्ट्रिया) राज्य की राजसत्ता कुषाणों ने यूनानियो को पराजित कर छीन लिया.

मध्य एशिया के लेखक राहुल सांकृत्यायन लिखते हैं, “१२४ ईस्वीपूर्व चीनी यात्री चान्ग्क्यान यूची शकों (कुषाणों) को वक्षु उपत्यका का स्वामी पाता है. बैक्ट्रिया का नाम बाद में तुखारिस्तान तुषारों के कारण पड़ा. यूची मूलतः शक भाषा भासी थे. इनकी भाषा ईरानी, संस्कृत और पुरानी शक भाषा सतेम परिवार (प्राचीन संस्कृत) से सम्बन्धित थी.”

वे आगे लिखते हैं, “ईसा कि प्रथम शताब्दी में तारिम उपत्यका के दक्षिणी भाग में उस समय भारतीय लिपि और भारतीय भाषा का प्रयोग होता था. नाम आदि से मालूम होता है कि भारत से जाकर बस गए लोगों का वहां प्राधान्य था. तारिम उपत्यका के उत्तरी भाग में शक-जातियों (तुषारों) का निवास था. यद्यपि भाषा, जाति और रीती-रिवाज में उत्तर दक्षिण का अंतर था, तो भी….दोनों प्रदेश एक ही धर्म और संस्कृति के माननेवाले थे.”

कुषाण साम्राज्य

ध्यानमुद्रा में बैठा हुआ गुजुर कपिशिया

कई इतिहासकारों का मत है कि कुषाण तारिम उपत्यका (शिनजियांग) के यूचीयों के वंशज तुखारों की ही एक शाखा थी. दरअसल बैक्ट्रिया को जीतने में पांच यूची कबीलों का साथ था. बैक्ट्रिया को जीतने के बाद प्रतिद्वंद्विता हुई जिसमें कुषाण कबीला सर्वश्रेष्ठ रहे और अपने सरदार कुजुल कडफिसस के नेतृत्व में राजसत्ता प्राप्त की.

कुजुल कडफिसस को कुषाण वंश का संस्थापक माना जाता है. चीन के ऐतिहासिक ग्रन्थ Hou Hanshu के अनुसार कुषाणों के सरदार कुजुल कड़फिसस ने बाह्लीक प्रदेश के दक्षिण में स्थित कपिशा और गंधार राज्यों को जीत लिया. कपिशा एक प्रतिष्ठित राज्य था. कपिशा राज्य का नाम उसके प्रसिद्ध नगर और राजधानी ‘कपिशा’ के नाम पर पडा था.

कुजुल कड़फिसस शैव धर्म को मानने वाला था. हिन्दू होने के कारण सर्वधर्म समभाव की भावना उसमें भी थी. इसलिए वह ग्रीक, बौद्ध, जरथ्रुष्ट धर्म को भी संरक्षण दिया. यह क्षेत्र लगभग ३५० वर्ष तक ग्रीकों के कब्जे में रहा, इसलिए कुषाणों पर ग्रीक धर्म, संस्कृति, भाषा और वेशभूषा का प्रारम्भ में काफी प्रभाव दिखाई देता है. प्रारम्भिक कुषाणों का राजनितिक संस्कृति और भाषा भी सम्भवतः ग्रीक ही रहा बाद में बाह्लीक (आर्य भाषा) और लिपि खरोष्ठी-ब्राह्मी हो गया.

कुजुल कडफिसस के वंशज

भारतीय शैली में बना सिंह के सिंहासन पर बैठा भीम ठाकोर उर्फ़ Vima Tahkto

अफगानिस्तान के राबतक अभिलेख से पता चलता है कि गुजुर कपिशिया के भाई का नाम सुदक्षना (Sadashkna) था (जो महाभारत में वर्णित एक कम्बोज राजा का भी नाम था). उसके पुत्र का नाम Vima Tahkto (भीम ठाकोर ?) था. इसके पौत्र का नाम वीम कडफिसस (भीम कपिशिया) था और यह भी शैव धर्मी था. भारत में कुषाण साम्राज्य के विस्तार का मुख्य श्रेय भीम कपिशिया को ही जाता है.  भारत में प्रथम सोने का सिक्का ढालने और सर्वाधिक सोने का सिक्का जारी करने का श्रेय इसे ही दिया जाता हैं.

सेनवर्मन के स्वर्णअभिलेख में सुदक्षना केलिए देवपुत्र और महाराजाधिराज कुजुल कडफिसस का पुत्र लिखा गया है.

भीम कपिशिया के सोने के सिक्के पर एक ओर शिव कि मूर्ति होती है. किसी किसी पर राजा के नाम से महिश्वर भी लिखा है जिससे उसके शैव होने का पता चलता है. इसके सिक्कों पर एक ओर मुकुट-शिरस्त्राणधारी राजा हाथ में गदा और शूल लिए खड़ा है तथा ग्रीक लिपि में वसिलेउस विमकडफिसस उत्कीर्ण है तथा दूसरी ओर महरजस राजाधिरजस सर्वलोग ईश्वरस महिश्वरस विमकडफिसस लिखा है. (मध्य एशिया का इतिहास)

Oesho अर्थात शिव वाली कुषाणकालीन सिक्के

भीम कपिशिया का पुत्र प्रसिद्ध राजा कनिष्क था जिसने मिनान्डर की नीति पर चलते हुए बौद्ध धर्म अपना लिया था. इसके समय कुषाण साम्राज्य आधुनिक उज्बेकिस्तान, ताजीकिस्तान, तुर्कमेनिस्तान, किर्गिस्तान से लेकर भारत के मथुरा तक विस्तृत हो गया था. तुर्कमेनिस्तान कुषाणों के बौद्ध नगर मर्व केलिए जाना था. (विकिपीडिया)

कनिष्क ने चीनी सेना को बुरी तरह पराजित किया और तारिम-उपत्यका (शिनजियांग) के अपने पूर्वजों के देश को प्राप्त करने में सफलता पाई…. कनिष्क केलिए बौद्ध धर्म या भारतीय संस्कृति कोई नई चीज नहीं थी, क्योंकि उसके पिता-पितामह के समय से ही नहीं, बल्कि कुषाणों के मूल स्थान तारिम-उत्यका में रहते समय भी बौद्ध धर्म और भारतीय संस्कृति की प्रधानता थी. (मध्य एशिया का इतिहास)

हुविष्क के सिक्खों पर भारतीय देवी देवताओं कि मूर्तियाँ मिलती है. हुविष्क के एक ताम्बे के सिक्के पर अग्रभाग पर हाथी पर सवार, शिरपर मुकुट पहने हाथ में शूल अंकुश लिए देवपुत्र की तस्वीर है, और पृष्ठ भाग पर किसी देवता की खड़ी मूर्ति. (मध्य एशिया का इतिहास)

शिवपुत्र स्कन्द और विशाख वाली हुविष्क के सिक्के

वासुदेव के सिक्के पर शिव, विशाख आदि कि मूर्तियाँ मिलिती है जिससे उसकी आस्था हिन्दू धर्म पर अधिक थी. कपिशा, बैक्ट्रिया, सोगदियाना, ख्वारेज्म आदि में नाना देवी की पूजा होती थी, जिसकी मूर्ति पहले के सभी कुषाण-सिक्कों पर मिलती है, किन्तु वासुदेव के सिक्कों पर बहुत कम मिलती है. इसके सिक्कों पर शिव और नदी की प्रधानता थी.  (मध्य एशिया का इतिहास)

मध्य एशिया के ख्वारेज्म में नाना देवी (पार्वती) वाला सिक्का

नाना देवी सम्भवतः सिंह पर सवार पार्वती देवी थी क्योंकि नाना देवी की मूर्ति कुषाणकालीन सिक्कों पर Oesho (शिव) के साथ युगलजोड़ी के रूप में मिलती है. हुविष्क और उसके बाद के सभी कुषाण शासक विशुद्ध हिन्दू धर्म और भारतीय संस्कृति का पालन करते थे, हाँ, हिन्दू होने के नाते वे सर्वधर्म समभाव में विश्वास भी रखते थे.

अंतिम प्रमाण

एक तरफ भारत के वामपंथी इतिहासकार शकों, कुषाणों और हूणों (श्वेत हूण) को विदेशी और आक्रमणकारी बताते हैं दूसरी ओर भारत के गुर्जरों को कुषाणों के वंशज और राजपूतों को शकों और हूणों के वंशज भी बताते हैं जो भारतीय सभ्यता, संस्कृति, धर्म, परम्परा और भारतियों के निर्विवाद पालक और संरक्षक थे और हैं.

परन्तु आश्चर्य है कि वे यह बात छुपाने की भरपूर कोशिश करते हैं कि मध्य एशिया के शक, हूण, कुषाण आदि की अपनी सभ्यता, संस्कृति, धर्म, परम्परा आदि क्या था क्योंकि यही उनके एजेंडा इतिहास को सूट करता है. सवाल है आक्रमणकारी मुसलमान और ईसाई (अंग्रेज) क्या भारत आकर हिन्दू बन गये? भारतीय सभ्यता संस्कृति धर्म परम्परा के रक्षक और पालक बन गये?

(नोट-विभिन्न स्रोतों से कुषाण शासकों के शासन करने के भिन्न भिन्न अवधि और वर्ष प्राप्त होते हैं. इसलिए इस लेख में उनके शासन का वर्ष नहीं दिया गया है.)

मध्य एशिया में हिन्दुओं के होने का अन्य प्रमाण

लेखक Marie Grahams लिखते हैं, “प्राचीनकाल से भारत और समरकंद में लोगों का आना-जाना बड़े प्रमाण में बराबर होता रहा है. बाह्लीक प्रदेश (बल्ख) और अन्य उत्तरी नगरों में अनादिकाल से हिन्दुओं की बस्तियां हैं. हिन्दुओं का यहाँ एक प्राचीन तीर्थस्थल भी है…. वह काश्यपीय  (Caspian) सागर तट पर स्थित है.” (letters on India, Writer-Marie Grahams)

“अर्बस्थान तक के प्रदेशों में और उत्तरी ईरान में भी हिन्दू बड़ी संख्या में पाए जाते हैं. ये लोग वहीँ के प्राचीन निवासियों के वंशज हैं. वे किन्हीं अन्य देशों से आकर यहाँ नहीं बसे. जब हजारों की संख्यां में स्थानीय जन मुसलमान बनाए जाने लगे तो उनमें जिन्होंने किसी भी दबाब व प्रलोभन में फंसकर इस्लाम धर्म स्वीकार नहीं किया, वे यह लोग हैं.” (Memoirs of India, Writer-R.G. Wallace)

गोडफ्रे हिगिंस के ग्रन्थ इंडिया इन ग्रीस के पृष्ठ ४३ से ५९ पर उल्लेख है कि “भारत के नगरकोट, कश्मीर और वाराणसी नगरों में, रशिया के समरकन्द नगर में बड़े विद्याकेंद्र थे जहाँ विपुल संस्कृत साहित्य था.” मारकंड (समरकंद) मध्य एशिया का देश उज्बेकिस्तान का एक शहर है. अतः भारत के साम्राज्यवादी और वामपंथी इतिहासकार जो हमें पढ़ाते हैं कि अफगानिस्तान से आगे हिन्दू नहीं रहते थे, बिलकुल गलत हैं. वे तो आधुनिक अफगानिस्तान के हिन्दू, बौद्ध इतिहास को भी छुपाने का भरसक प्रयत्न करते हैं.

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